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Asthma is a refractory disease associated with chronic bronchial inflammation, whose syndromes are recurrent gasp, dyspnea, stuff chest of cough, then even orthopnea.





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Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms. Each of the following, if true, provides support to the argument EXCEPT:

A.Urban populations have doubled in the past decade.

B.Records of asthma deaths are as accurate for the past twenty years as for the past ten years.

C.Evidence suggests that bronchial inhalers make the lungs more sensitive to irritation by airborne pollen.

D.By tem|X)rarily relieving the symptoms of asthma, inhalers encourage sufferers to avoid more beneficial measures.

E.Ten years ago bronchial inhalers were not available as an asthma treatment.



The energy associated with molecules is known as _____.

A.kinetic energy

B.potential energy

C.mechanical energy

D.thermal energy



The relationship between exposure to ______ has not yet been determined.

A.ozone and fall in lung function

B.ozone and lung diseases such as asthma

C.nitrogen dioxide and worse lung function

D.smog and chronic bronchitis and emphysema



The relationship between exposure to ______has not yet been determined.

A.ozone and fall in lung function

B.ozone and lung diseases such as asthma

C.nitrogen dioxide and worse lung function

D.smog and chronic bronchitis and emphysema



What kind of illness does "asthma" belong to?

A.Mental sickness.

B.Respiratory disease.


D.Infectious disease.



Which of the following is not associated with mountain?

A.spiritual transcendence

B.purification of one’s mind

C.God’s grace

D.renunciation of worldly desires



听力原文:This is our last meeting before the camps arrive tomorrow. I'll give u the activity schedule later. But, now I want to answer a question one of u asked me yesterday about camps with asthma. Let me explain a little about the disease. First of all, it's chronical and very common. 20 million people in the United States alone have it. It affects the bronchial tubes that are the airways of the lungs. During normal breathing, air is drawn in through the mouse and nose, and eventually makes its way into the bronchial tubes. The asthma patient's bronchial tubes are very sensitive, and easily irritated by exercises or strength, exposure to allergy or pollution, or breathing in cold air, cigarettes smoke. When asthmatic suffers an attack, the airway path was constricted, making it difficult for the person from breathing normally. If a camp in your group has even a mild asthma, you would be informed and given further instruction about what to do in case of an attack. But don't worry. Some of our camps might have a mild case, but they always bring their medicines with them and we never have a problem. Are there any other questions? Ok, let's talk about the schedule for tomorrow.


A.The diagnosis of asthma.

B.How to prevent an asthma attack.

C.What asthma is and what happens during an asthma attack.

D.The types of medicine available to an asthmatic.



Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. (40 points)

Children attending schools located in high-traffic zones have a 45 percent increased risk of developing asthma, even though time spent at school only accounts for about one-third of a child's waking hours, according to new research.

Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness in developed countries and has been linked to environmental factors such as traffic-related air pollution. "While residential traffic-related pollution has been associated with asthma, there has been little study of the effects of traffic exposure at school on new onset asthma," says Rob McConnell, professor of preventive medicine at USC's Keck School of Medicine. "Exposure to pollution at locations other than home, especially where children spend a large portion of their day and may engage in physical activity, appears to influence asthma risk as well."

The study appears online in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. The study drew upon data from the Children's Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal study of children in Southern California communities that was designed to investigate the chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health. Using a cohort of 2 497 kindergarten and first grade children who were asthma-free when they entered the study, researchers examined the relationship of local traffic around schools and homes to diagnosis new onset asthma that occurred during three years of follow-up. Traffic-related pollution exposure was assessed based on a model that took into account traffic volume, distance to major roadways from home and school and local weather conditions.

Regional ambient ozone, nitrogen dioxide (二氧化氮) and particulate matter were measured continuously at one central site in each of the 13 study communities. The design allowed investigators to examine the joint effects of local traffic-related pollution exposure at school and at home and of regional pollution exposure affecting the entire community. Researchers found 120 cases of new asthma. The risk associated with traffic-related pollution exposure at schools was almost as high as for residential exposure, and combined exposure accounting for time spent at home and at school had a slightly larger effect. Although children spend less time at school than at home, physical education, and other activities that take place at school may increase ventilation rates and the dose of pollutants getting into the lungs, McConnell notes. Traffic-related pollutant levels may also be higher during the morning hours when children are arriving at school.

Despite a state law that prohibits school districts from building campuses within 500 feet of a freeway, many Southern California schools are located near high-traffic areas, including busy surface streets.

"It's important to understand how these micro-environments where children spent a lot of their time outside of the home are impacting their health," McConnell says. "Policies that reduce exposure to high-traffic environments may help to prevent this disease. " The study was funded by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Hastings Foundation.

Which one is NOT the reason that children increase risk of developing asthma?

A.There exists traffic-related pollution.

B.Schools are located in heavy-traffic areas.

C.Children are frequently exposed to pollution.

D.The vehicles increase rapidly.



For a given characteristic in a construction process, the standard deviation associated with production variation is 0.8", and the standard deviation associated with measurement variation is 0.6". The total standard deviation for this characteristic is:

A . 1.4"

B . 1.2".

C . 1.0"

D . 0.8"

E . 0.2"



Lowering the Risk of Heart Disease

Like millions of other Americans, I come from a family with a history Of heart disease. My father had his first three heart attacks when he was only thirty-one.__________(46)I grew up with heart disease. It was there, but I didn't take it seriously.

When I was thirty-one, my blood cholesterol (胆固醇) level was measured for the first time. It was 311 mg/dl, the doctor told me--an extremely high level that put me at a very high risk of heart disease, 'especially with my family history. He sent me to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to be screened for participation in a clinical trial. _________(47)

At NIH, physicians explained the degree of risk associated with my blood

cholesterol level and the nature of the experiment. This test involves putting a tube through a leg artery (动脉) up to the heart._________(48)

Learning about the risks of the experiment as well as the risk associated with my raised blood cholesterol level scared the life out of me. Although I was excluded from participating in the study, the experience may well have saved my life.

For the first time, I began to realize the seriousness of high blood cholesterol.___________(49) But equally important, I got a taste of what it is like to be a patient, to have tests done on me and to think of myself as sick. This was hard to take.

This experience taught me two lifesaving lessons. First, although I felt fit and strong, I was actually at high risk for heart disease because of my high blood cholesterol level. And with my family history, it could not be ignored.___________(50)

A.The death rate for the test was only 1 in 100, I was assured.

B.Second, I could lower my blood cholesterol level simply by changing what I ate.

C.I was three years old at that time.

D.There is not enough oxygen in the blood.

E. It was a heart attack just waiting to happen.

F. The trial was designed to test the effect of lowering blood cholesterol on the risk of heart disease.

第 46 题 请选择(46)处的最佳答案.

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