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The effect of governmental expenditures on the tot...

The effect of governmental expenditures on the total economy varies with both the level of utilization of labor and capital in the economy at the time of the expenditure, and the segment of the economy which receives the expenditure. If the economy as a whole or the segment of the economy which is the focus of the expenditure is operating at capacity or close to capacity, then the expenditure&39;s major effects will tend to be inflationary, and will not generate much employment of capital and labor. If the economy or sector is operating at much less than full employment, the expenditure will produce a genuine (non-inflationary) rise in the GNP.

A true measure of the effect of governmental increase in the amount of money made available, then, is not the simple dollar value of the initial injection but the cumulative effect of this injection through spending and re-spending. In the optimum case the initial expansion of income flow could be great enough to produce tax revenues in excess of the original "deficit spending" or the "tax cut", so that deficits are not only smaller than the increased GNP but are recouped. In Keynesian economics the fundamental point of government policy clearly is not budget-balancing but spending in the event of unused productive capacity and unemployment. Spending increases productivity. This productivity resulting from federal spending has overwhelmed the older economic myths of the balanced budget where government is conceived of as just another business firm.

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第1题

The effect of governmental expenditures on the total economy varies with both the level of utilization of labor and capital in the economy at the time of the expenditure, and the segment of the economy which receives the expenditure. If the economy as a whole or the segment of the economy which is the focus of the expenditure is operating at capacity or close to capacity, then the expenditure&39;s major effects will tend to be inflationary, and will not generate much employment of capital and labor. If the economy or sector is operating at much less than full employment, the expenditure will produce a genuine (non-inflationary) rise in the GNP.
A true measure of the effect of governmental increase in the amount of money made available, then, is not the simple dollar value of the initial injection but the cumulative effect of this injection through spending and re-spending. In the optimum case the initial expansion of income flow could be great enough to produce tax revenues in excess of the original "deficit spending" or the "tax cut", so that deficits are not only smaller than the increased GNP but are recouped. In Keynesian economics the fundamental point of government policy clearly is not budget-balancing but spending in the event of unused productive capacity and unemployment. Spending increases productivity. This productivity resulting from federal spending has overwhelmed the older economic myths of the balanced budget where government is conceived of as just another business firm.


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第2题

In exploring the effect of El Nino, the author mainly focuses on
A.its violence.
B.its conditions.
C.its regularity
D.its features.

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第3题

Other tests have shown that laughter can reduce the effect of 48______________on the body.


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第4题

The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is______.
A.harmful
B.desirable
C.profound
D.questionable

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第5题

阅读理解。
     There was more evidence the effects of high oil prices on the transportation industry.
     Automakers reported further drops in sales of tracks and SUVs (sport utility vehicles) in the United States
Big, fuel-hungry vehicles brought in big profits-until Americans faced big costs for fuel now they want smaller
and more fuel-efficient cars. The head of General Motors, Rick Wagoner, says the prices are changing consular
behavior. G.M sales in the United States dropped 30%from last year. The Ford Motor Company had a 19%
drop.
     General Motors announced it will close four truck factories in North America and expand car production.
It may also see its Hummer division. Hummers are military-like vehicles. But Rick Wagoner said G-M will go
forward with plans to make the Chevy Volt, a car powered mainly by electricity. He said it will be available no
later than the end of 2010.
     Still, new findings show that Americans are driving less. The Federal Highway Administration says the
number of kilometers traveled on public roads has dropped since late 2006.
     Many people may be driving less because of high gasoline prices But transportation officials worry that less
demand for gasoline will mean shortages of money from fuel taxes that support reads. Use of public
transportation, though, is up. The American Public Transportation Association says it increased three percent
this year.
     High fuel prices are also affecting air travel. The International Air Transport Association expects the
industry to lose at least two billion dollars this year, mainly because of prices for jet fuel. This week more air,
carriers in the United States announced plans to cut flights and jobs and remove older. Less fuel efficient planes
from service Continental Airlines said record-high fuel prices have produced the worst crisis (危机) for the
industry since 2001.
1. According to Rick Wagoner, _____.
A. G.M. has made the Chevy Volt already
B. G.M. sales in America had a 19%drop
C. oil prices affect people's buying behavior
D. people like bigger and more fuel-efficient cars
2. Which of the following will General Motors do?
A. To try to produce more cats.
B. To make a new kind of truck powered mainly by electricity.
C. To close truck factories in America.
D. To make more vehicles such as Hummers for the army.
3. The last paragraph mainly tells us _____.
A. high oil prices made some people lost their jobs
B. 1ess fuel-efficient planes will come out of service
C. airlines faces till worst crisis since 2001
D. the effect of oil prices on airlines
4. We can learn from the passage that _____.
A. American public transportation carries more passengers than before
B. the Ford Motor Company doesn't face the challenge of increasing oil prices
C. carmakers will get more money from American government
D. the prices of cars will be much cheaper than they are now
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第6题


The effect that exhaust gas recirculation can reduce NOX formation is partly due to a reduction of the()concentration in the combustion zone and partly due to the content of water and carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas.
A.Oxygen
B.Nitrogen
C.Sulphur
D.Freon

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第7题

Beyond that, the efforts of many governments to ba...

Beyond that, the efforts of many governments to bail out entire industries risk taking on a protectionist tone. Washington is again a case in point as it spends billions to rescue Detroit's Big Three, with not a penny going to Toyota or BMW, both of which are hurting from the downturn and both of which are gigantic investors in the U.S. and employers of tens of thousand of Americans. Another looming problem could concern the aircraft industry, as just last week the French government decided to subsidize financing for Airbus④ not just with normal export financing but with money heretofore reserved for rescuing banks. How long before Washington and Boeing follow suit?

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第8题

The sharp increase in the number of shareholders at the end of 1984 was due to______.


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第9题


Many people have been talking about the way in which the world will come to an end in 2012. Everybody wants to find out if December 21, 2012 is the last day of the earth. The rumor has already been spreading for a very long time. The Mayan’s prediction can account for the rumor. According to the rumor, the earth will experience dramatic changes in 2012 and the changes will be disastrous to all of the living creatures on earth. It is widely assumed that a Planet X will return to orbit the solar system. The return of Planet X will have a destructive effect on the solar system as well as on some planets including the Neptune, the Jupiter and the earth. Planet X will cross into their orbits. There’s a possibility that Jupiter will change into a little sun at this time, so folks will be well placed to see two suns in the sky in 2012.
The solar flares (耀斑) that occur in a 11-year cycle will reach their highest point in 2012. The powerful solar flares will affect the magnetic field of the earth and cause disasters. On December 21, 2012, the sun and the earth will line up in the same line at the equator(赤道). The winter solstice(冬至) only occurs once every 25,800 years. The events in the universe are signals that the world will come to an end. As a result of the solar flares, lots of disasters will happen that will destroy the face of the whole earth. Scientists are making the guess primarily based on the Mayan Long Count Calendar.
Many films have been made about the end of the world including End Game by Alex Jones and End Clock: Nostradamus 2012. The former provides insights about the way the world will become one state. After the world government is in place, it’s going to be easy to exterminate 80% of the people in the world. The rest will continue to live with assistance from advanced technology.
No one knows whether the world will end on December 21, 2012: There is no clear answer until the day arrives. Just as the Mayans claim, it will not be the time for the world to end. Instead, it will be the dawn of a fresh start.
小题1:What is the passage mainly about?
A.Information about end-of-the-world predictions.
B.Different opinions about end-of-the-world predictions.
C.Some doubts about end-of-the-world predictions.
D.Destructive effects of the end of the world.
小题2:Which of the following things will NOT happen if the end of the world really happens?
A.Humans will see two suns at the same time.
B.The earth will look completely different.
C.The earth and the moon will line up in the same line.
D.The solar flares will become stronger than before.
小题3:The underlined word “exterminate” in Paragraph 3 probably means “__________”.
A.saveB.killC.helpD.rule
小题4:What is the author’s attitude to the rumor that the world will end?
A.Optimistic .B.Sad.C.Unconcerned.D.Scared.
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第10题

What is the talk mainly about?
A.The effect of the Civil War on American literature.
B.A genre in American literature of the late nineteenth century.
C.The way in which American realism influenced U.S. society.
D.The body of literature written by Mark Twain.

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