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A good translator is by definition bilingual. The ...

A good translator is by definition bilingual. The opposite is not【C1】______tree, however. A born and bred bilingual will still need two【C2】______to become a translator: first, the skills and experience necessary for【C3】______; second, knowledge of the field in which he or she will【C4】______. The skills and experience for translation include the ability to write【C5】______in the target language, the ability to read and understand the【C6】______language material thoroughly, and the ability to work with the latest【C7】______and communication hardware and software.

Does a born and bred bilingual【C8】______a better translator than someone who learned language B later in【C9】______? There is no definite answer, but the following issues are important.【C10】______, a born and bred bilingual often suffers from not truly knowing【C11】______language well enough to translate, with some even suffering from what【C12】______known as a lingualism, a state in which a person lacks【C13】______full, fluent command of any language. Second, born and bred bilinguals【C14】______don't know the culture of the target language well enough to【C15】______top-quality translations, or cannot recognize what aspects of the source language【C16】______its culture need to be treated with particular care, as they【C17】______in a sense too close to the language. And last, they often【C18】______the analytical linguistic skills to work through a sticky text.

On【C19】______other hand, the acquired bilingual may not have the same in-depth【C20】______of colloquialisms, slang, and dialect that the born bilingual has. Also, the acquired bilingual will not be able to translate as readily in both directions (from B to language A and A to language B). Finally, born bilinguals often have a greater appreciation of the subtleties and nuances of both their languages than someone who learns their B language later in life can ever hope to have.

【C1】

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第1题

Where do you really come from? And how did you get...

Where do you really come from? And how did you get (1) where you live today? DNA studies suggest that all humans today (2) from a group of African ancestors who—about 60,000 years ago— (3) a remarkable journey.

The Genographic Project is seeking to chart new (4) about the migratory history of the human species by (5) sophisticated laboratory and computer analysis of DNA contributed by hundreds of (6) of people from around the world. In this unprecedented and real-time (7) effort, the Genographic Project is closing the gaps of what science (8) today about mankind's ancient migration stories.

The Genographic Project is a five-year (9) partnership led by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dr. Spencer Wells. Dr. (10) and a team of renowned international scientists and IBM researchers, are (11) cutting-edge genetic and computational technologies to analyze historical patterns in DNA (12) participants around the world to better understand our human genetic roots. (13) three components of the project are: to gather field research data (14) collaboration with indigenous and traditional peoples around the world; to invite (15) general public to join the project by purchasing a Genographic Project Public Participation Kit; (16) to use proceeds from Genographic Public Participation Kit sales to further (17) research and the Genographic Legacy Fund which in (18) supports indigenous conservation and revitalization projects. The Project is anonymous, non-medical, (19) , non-profit and non-commercial and all results will be placed in the (20) domain following scientific peer publication.

(81)

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第2题

听力原文: The Commission is expected to propose al...

听力原文: The Commission is expected to propose allowing people to choose which legal jurisdiction they would come under, based on their nationalities or their residency. But the proposal is set to run into difficulties because of the very different laws on divorce that apply across the EU. The Commission wants to clear up problems over which law to apply when, for example, a married couple from one member state is resident in another member state or when the couple is of different EU nationalities.

The majority of member states are said to be in favor of the idea and responded positively to a consultation which followed the publication of a Commission Green Paper. With 15% of German divorces each year involving couples of different nationalities, the government of Berlin is particularly keen to see resolved the issue of which laws should apply.

But some member states are expected to resist the proposal which would involve allowing different divorce laws to be applied in their countries. For example, Malta does not allow divorce. The proposal would mean that although Maltese nationals could not divorce in Malta, a couple of different EU nationality resident in Malta could apply to the Maltese court for a divorce under their country's laws. Similarly in Ireland where the divorce law states a couple must have been separated for four years, establish that their marriage has broken down and be offered mediation, a couple from Sweden could apply to an Irish court to allow them to divorce under Swedish law, where divorce can be obtained quickly. The Irish government's submission to the Commission on the Green Paper stated: "Ireland is not in favor of allowing spouses to choose the applicable law, as this could be open to abuse ... such abuse would be likely to impact most on divorce regimes, such as that of Ireland, which require a relatively long separation period."

Ireland, like the UK, however, is allowed to choose whether to "opt-in" to such a proposal under rules agreed in the Amsterdam treaty. Malta has no such safeguard but could veto the proposal in the Council of Ministers since unanimous approval will be required. "It is going to lead to a two-tier situation," said Geoffrey Shannon, Irish expert on the Commission on European Family Law, which examines the harmonisation of EU family law. The proposal would also mean that judges would have to be trained in the divorce law of all 25 member states.

The Commission is expected to propose allowing people to choose which (36) they would come under, based on their (37) or their residency. But the proposal is set to (38) because of the very different laws on divorce that apply across the EU. The Commission wants to (39) problems over which law to apply when, for example, a married couple from one member state is resident in another member state or when the couple is of different ELI nationalities.

The (40) of member states are said to be (41) the idea and responded positively to a (42) which followed the (43) of a Commission Green Paper. With 15% of German divorces each year involving couples of different nationalities, the government of Berlin (44) see resolved the issue of which laws should apply.

But some member states are expected to resist the (45) which would involve allowing different divorce laws to be applied in their countries. For example, Malta does not allow divorce. The proposal would mean that although Maltese nationals could not divorce in Malta, a couple of different EU nationality (46) in Malta could apply to the Maltese court for a divorce under their country's laws. Similarly in Ireland where the divorce law states a couple must have been separated for four years, establish that their marriage has broken down and be offered (47) a couple from Sweden could apply to an Irish court to allow them to divorce under Swedish law, where divorce can be (48) quickly. The Irish government's

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第3题

Phyllis Wheatley is regarded as America's first black poet. She was born in Senegal, Afric

Phyllis Wheatley is regarded as America's first black poet. She was born in Senegal, Africa, about 1753 and brought to America aboard a slave ship at about the age of seven. John and Susannah Wheatley bought her for three pounds at a slave auction in Boston in 1761 to be a personal servant of Mrs. Wheatley. The family had three other slaves, and all were treated with respect. Phyllis was soon accepted as one of the family, which included being raised and educated with the Wheatley's twin 15-year-old children, Mary and Nathaniel. At that time, most females, even from better families, could not read and write, but Mary was probably one of the best educated young women in Boston. Mary wanted to become a teacher, and in fact, it was Mary who decided to take charge of Phyllis's education. Phyllis soon displayed her remarkable talents. At the age of twelve she was reading the Greek and Latin classics and passages from the Bible. And eventually, Mrs. Wheatley decided Phyllis should become a Christian.

At the age of thirteen Phyllis wrote her first poem. She became a Boston sensation after she wrote a poem on the death of the evangelical preacher George Whitfield in 1770. It became common practice in Boston to have "Mrs. Wheatley's Phyllis" read poetry in polite society. Mary married in 1771, and Phyllis later moved to the country because of poor health, as a teacher and caretaker to a farmer's three children. Mary had tried to interest publishers in Phyllis's poems but once they heard she was a Negro they weren't interested.

Then in 1773 Phyllis went with Nathaniel, who was now a businessman, to London. It was thought that a sea voyage might improve her health. Thirty-nine of her poems were published in London as Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. It was the first book published by a black American. In 1775 Phyllis wrote a poem extolling the accomplishments of George Washington and sent it to him. He responded by praising her talents and inviting her to visit his headquarters. After both of her benefactors died in 1777, and Mary died in 1778, Phyllis was freed as a slave. She married in 1778, moved away from Boston, and had three children. But after the unhappy marriage, she moved back to Boston, and died in poverty at the age of thirty.

What does the passage mainly discuss?

A.Slavery and the treatment of the black people in America.

B.The Wheatley family, including their slaves.

C.The life of America's first black poet.

D.The achievements of Phyllis Wheatley.

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第4题

A Sports体育运动

Many animals engage in play,but homo sapiens is the only animal (1) have invented sports.Since sports are an invention,a part of culture (2) than an aspect of nature,all definitions of sports are somewhat arbitrary. (3) sports are a human universal found in every known culture or a (4) unique to modern society depends upon one's definition of sports.Men and (5) have always run,jumped,climbed,lifted,thrown, and wrestled,but they have (6) always performed these physical activities competitively. Although all literate societies seem to (7) contests of one sort or another in which men, and sometimes women, (8) in displays and tests of physical skill and prowess,sports may be (9) defined as physical contests performed for their own sake and not for (10) ulterior end.According to this strict definition,neither Neolithic hunters nor contestants (11) religious ceremonies such as the ancient Olympic Games were engaged in sports. (12) on the stipulation that sports must be performed for their own sake (13) the paradoxical elimination of many activities which are usually thought of as (14) ,such as exercises done for the sake of cardiovascular fitness,races run (15) satisfy a physical education requirement,ball games played to earn a paycheck. (16) definition also means abandonment of the traditional usage in which"sport,"derived (17) Middle English disporter,refers to any light hearted recreational activity.In the. (18) of some 18th- century aristocrats,a game of backgammon and the seduction of (19) milkmaid were both considered good sport,but this usage of the term (20) become archaic.

(1)

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第5题

听力原文: I am honored to be here today, representing Harvard at this celebration of the College Board's half century of working to promote high standards and equal opportunity in higher education.

Before I say anything else, I want to thank everyone in the room for the work you do every day to make college affordable, available and successful for millions of young people across the country.

I want to focus my remarks on a matter of central concern to American families and to the future of the nation -- restoring education to its proper role as a pathway to equal opportunity and excellence in our society.

This has been an enduring theme in higher education, with great and creative efforts made by many institutions. Earlier this year, we announced a new initiative at Harvard aimed at the students from families of low and moderate income. Under our new program, families with incomes of less than $ 40,000 will no longer be expected to contribute to the cost of attending Harvard for their children. Families with incomes of less than $ 60,000 will also see their contributions reduced.

We are proud of this effort at Harvard, but we are aware that the programs of individual institutions with means can never be a substitute for our shared public responsibility to provide adequate funding for Pell grants and other financial aid, and for the state and community college systems that make higher education accessible and affordable for the broad public.

There is something empty about undertaking initiatives that may be right for one institution without attention to their broader impact. Likewise, we fall short if we urge changes in national policy without doing what we can on our own campuses.

In this spirit, I want to address today a problem that is emerging with increasing urgency in this nation.

I am honored to be here today, (1) Harvard at this celebration of the College Board's half century of working to promote (2) and equal opportunity in higher education.

Before I say anything else, I want to thank everyone in the room for the work you do every day to make college (3) , available, and (4) for millions of young people across the country.

I want to focus my remarks on a matter of (5) to American familiesand to the future of the nation -- restoring education to its proper role as a (6) to equal opportunity and (7) in our society.

This has been an (8) in higher education, with great and creative efforts made by many institutions. Earlier this year, we announced a new (9) at Harvard aimed at the students from families of low and (10) income. Under our new program, families with incomes of (11) will no longer be expected to contribute to the cost of attending Harvard for their children. Families with incomes of less than $ 60,000 will also see their (12) reduced.

We are proud of this effort at Harvard, but we are aware that the programs of individual institutions with means can never be a substitute for our shared (13) to provide adequate funding for Pell grants and other financial aid, and for the state and community college systems that make higher education (14) and affordable for the (15) .

There is something empty about (16) initiatives that may be right for one institution without attention to their broader impact. (17) , we (18) if we urge changes in national policy without doing what we can on our own campuses.

In this spirit, I want to (19) today a problem that is emerging with (20) in this nation.

(36)

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第6题

听力原文: A delegation of American officials appeared before an international legal panel on Friday to argue that in its fight against terrorism, the United States had not violated its treaty obligations

The delegation's report to the United Nations panel, which was meeting in Geneva, did not break new ground. The officials contended that despite instances of abuse in Afghanistan, Iraq and Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the United States has not systematically mistreated prisoners and remained committed to a global ban on torture.

Under the Convention Against Torture, a 1987 treaty that is a centerpiece of international human rights law, the United States was supposed to have reported to the United Nations panel on its compliance by 1999.

The panel, known as the Committee Against Torture, will review the American report and issue findings later this month, but it has no power to enforce its conclusions.

The delegation included more than two dozen representatives from the State, Defense, Justice and Homeland Security Departments, but not from the C.L.A.

A delegation of American officials appeared before an international legal panel on (36) to argue that in its fight (37) , the United States had not violated its treaty obligations to (38) the torture of prisoners.

It was the (39) since Sept. 11, 2001, that a United States delegation had answered questions from an (40) about abuses by soldiers and (41)

The delegation's report to the (42) panel, which was meeting in Geneva, did not break new ground. The officials contended that despite instances of (43) in Afghanistan, Iraq and Guantánamo Bay, (44) , the United States has not systematically mistreated (45) and remained (46) to a global ban on torture.

Under the Convention Against Torture, a (47) treaty that is a centerpiece of international (48) law, the United States was supposed to have (49) to the United Nations panel on its compliance by (50) .

The panel, known as the (51) , will review the American report and issue findings later this month, but it has (52) to enforce its conclusions.

The delegation included more than (53) representatives from the State, Defense, (54) and Homeland Security Departments, but not from the (55) .

(36)

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第7题

Sociology社会学

Sociology is a social science that studies (1) societies, their interactions, and the processes that (2) and change them. It does this by (3) the dynamics of constituent parts of societies (4) as institutions, communities, populations, and gender, racial, (5) age groups. Sociology also studies social status (6) stratification, social movements, and social change, as (7) as societal disorder in the form. of (8) , deviance, and revolution.

Social life overwhelmingly regulates (9) behaviour of humans, largely because humans lack (10) instincts that guide most animal behaviour. Humans (11) depend on social institutions and organizations to (12) their decisions and actions. Given the important (13) organizations play in influencing human action, it (14) sociology's task to discover how organizations affect (15) behaviour of persons, how they are established, (16) organizations interact with one another, how they (17) , and, ultimately, how they disappear. Among the (18) basic organizational structures are economic, religious, educational, (19) political institutions, as well as more specialized (20) such as the family, the community, the military, peer groups, clubs, and volunteer associations.

(1)

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第8题

听力原文: Snow is a subject of great interest to weather experts. Experts sometimes have d

听力原文: Snow is a subject of great interest to weather experts. Experts sometimes have difficulty estimating where, when or how much snow will fall. One reason is that heavy amounts of snow fall in surprisingly small areas. Another reason is that a small change in temperature can mean the difference between snow and rain.

Snow falls in extreme northern and southern areas of the world throughout the year. However, the heaviest snowfalls have been reported in the mountains of other areas during winter. These areas include the Alps in Italy and Switzerland, the coastal mountains of western Canada, and the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains in the United States. In warmer climates, snow is known to fall in areas over four thousand nine hundred meters above sea level.

Snow can be beautiful to look at, but it can also be dangerous.

Snow is responsible for the deaths of hundreds of people in the United States every year. Many people die in traffic accidents on roads that are covered with snow or ice. Others die from being out in the cold or from heart attacks caused by extreme physical activity.

A few years ago, a major storm caused serious problems in the eastern United States. It struck the Southeast in January 1996, before moving up the East Coast. The storm was blamed for more than one hundred deaths. It forced nine states to declare emergency measures.

Virginia and West Virginia were hit hardest. In some areas, snowfall amounts were more than one meter high. Several states limited driving to emergency vehicles. Most major airports were closed for at least a day or two.

A week later, two other storms brought additional snow to the East Coast. In the New York City area, the added weight of the snow forced the tops of some buildings to collapse. Many travelers were forced to walk long distances through deep snow to get to train stations.

People may not be able to avoid living in areas where it snows often. However, they can avoid becoming victims of winter snowstorms.

People should stay in their homes until the storm has passed. While removing large amounts of snow, they should stop and rest often. Difficult physical activity during snow removal can cause a heart attack. It is always a good idea to keep a lot of necessary supplies in the home even before winter begins. These supplies include food, medicine, clean water, and extra power supplies.

Some drivers have become trapped in their vehicles during a snowstorm. If this happens, people should remain in or near their car unless they see some kind of help. They should get out and clear space around the vehicle to prevent the possibility of carbon monoxide gas poisoning.

People should tie a bright-colored object to the top of their car to increase the chance of rescue. Inside the car, they should open a window a little for fresh air and turn on the engine for ten or fifteen minutes every hour for heat.

People living in areas with winter storms should carry emergency supplies in their vehicles. They should include food, emergency medical supplies, and extra clothing to stay warm and dry. People in these areas should always be prepared for winter emergencies.

(56)

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第9题

Hillary Rodham Clinton

希拉里?罗德姆?克林顿

During the 1992 presidential campaign, Hillary Rodham Clinton observed, "Our lives are a mixture of different roles. Most of us are doing the best we can to find whatever the right balance is...For me, that balance is family, work, and service. "

Hillary Diane Rodham, Dorothy and Hugh Rodham's first child, was born on October 26, 1947.Two brothers, Hugh and Tony, soon followeD.Hillary's childhood in Park Ridge, Illinois, was happy and disciplined.She loved sports and her church, and was a member of the National Honor Society, and a student leader. Her parents encouraged her to study hard and to pursue any career that interested her.

As an undergraduate at Wellesley College, Hillary mixed academic excellence with school government. Speaking at graduation, she said, "The challenge now is to practice politics as the art of making what appears to be impossible, possible. "

In 1969, Hillary entered Yale Law School, where she served on the Board of Editors of Yale Law Review and Social Action, interned with children's advocate Marian Wright Edelman, and met Bill Clinton. The President often recalls how they met in the library when she strode up to him and said, "If you're going to keep staring at me, I might as well introduce myself. " The two were soon inseparable—partners in moot court, political campaigns, and matters of the heart.

After graduation, Hillary advised the Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge and joined the impeachment inquiry staff advising the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives. After completing those responsibilities, she"followed her heart to Arkansas," where Bill had begun his political career.

They married in 1975. She joined the faculty of the University of Arkansas Law School in 1975 and the Rose Law Firm in 1976. In 1978, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the board of the Legal Services Corporation, and Bill Clinton became governor of Arkansas. Their daughter, Chelsea, was born in 1980.

Hillary served as Arkansas's First Lady for 12 years, balancing family, law, and public service. She chaired the Arkansas Educational Standards Committee, co-founded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, and served on the boards of the Arkansas Children's Hospital, Legal Services, and the Children's Defense FunD.

As the nation's First Lady, Hillary continued to balance public service with private life. Her active role began in 1993 when the President asked her to chair the Task Force on National Health Care Reform. She continued to be a leading advocate for expanding health insurance coverage, ensuring children are properly immunized, and raising public awareness of health issues. She wrote a weekly newspaper column entitled "Talking It Over," which focused on her experiences as First Lady and her observations of women, children, and families she has met around the worlD.Her 1996 book It Takes a Village and Other Lessons Children Teach Us As First Lady, her public involvement with many activities sometimes led to controversy. Undeterred by critics, Hillary won many admirers for her staunch support for women around the world and her commitment to children's issues.

She was elected United States Senator from New York on November 7, 2000. She is the first First Lady elected to the United States Senate and the first woman elected statewide in New York.

On the eve of becoming the First Lady of the United States, Hillary Rodham Clinton began to take service into consideration. Here the word "service" means______.

A.work in the army, navy or the air force

B.work or duty done for the country

C.work in any of the government departments

D.work in the President's home

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第10题

听力原文: Everyone knows about unemployment. But m...

听力原文: Everyone knows about unemployment. But millions of working Americans are now facing a less familiar and perhaps more troubling problem: shrinking wages. It's a phenomenon that takes many forms. Some workers have had to swallow outright pay cuts. Others have lost their jobs and, in the tough labor market of today, have had to settle for new ones at less pay. Still others—including employees at such giants as AT&T, Boise Cascade and Starwood Hotels—have had to accept pay freezes that, when rising prices are factored in, amount to reduced compensation. To add insult to injury, companies everywhere are reducing bonuses and overtime and eroding health and pension benefits.

The numbers are grim. For the 500,000 workers laid off since January, the average job search has stretched to a 19-year high of nearly five months—about twice the duration of the typical severance package. According to outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas, 17% of those who do find work—nearly double the historical percentage—are settling for less pay. The net result of the various pressures on pay is in the first three months of 2003, median weekly earnings adjusted for inflation fell 1.5%, according to the U.S. Labor Department. That's the biggest drop since 1991, according to Jared Bernstein, an economist at the Economic Policy Institute, a research group based in Washington. Wage erosion partly explains why the Federal Reserve Board openly frets about the threat of deflation, a downward spiral in prices that can cripple an economy by making debt repayment more difficult and encouraging consumers to wait for even lower prices. Adding fuel to the deflation debate, the cost of goods to both consumers and manufacturers fell in April, officials reported last week.

Which of the following is NOT a form. of wage erosion?

A.Pay cuts.

B.Pay freezes.

C.Bonus reduction.

D.Job-hopping.

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