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?Present-day philosophers usually envision their d...

❶Present-day philosophers usually envision their discipline as an endeavor that has been, since antiquity, distinct from and superior to any particular intellectual discipline, such as theology or science. ❷Such philosophical concerns as the mind-body problem or, more generally, the nature of human knowledge, they believe, are basic human questions whose tentative philosophical solutions have served as the necessary foundations on which all other intellectual speculation has rested. ❶The basis for this view, however, lies in a serious misinterpretation of the past, a projection of modern concerns onto past events. ❷The idea of an autonomous discipline called “philosophy,” distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as theology and science turns out, on close examination, to be of quite recent origin. ❸When, in the seventeenth century, Descartes and Hobbes rejected medieval philosophy, they did not think of themselves, as modern philosophers do, as proposing a new and better philosophy, but rather as furthering “the warfare between science and theology” . ❹They were fighting, albeit discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy and envisioned their work as contributing to the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in mathematics and physics. ❺This link between philosophical interests and scientific practice persisted until the nineteenth century, when decline in ecclesiastical power over scholarship and changes in the nature of science provoked the final separation of philosophy from both. ❶The demarcation of philosophy from science was facilitated by the development in the early nineteenth century of a new notion, that philosophy’s core interest should be epistemology, the general explanation of what it means to know something. ❷Modern philosophers now trace that notion back at least to Descartes and Spinoza, but it was not explicitly articulated until the late eighteenth century, by Kant, and did not become built into the structure of academic institutions and the standard self-descriptions of philosophy professors until the late nineteenth century. ❸Without the idea of epistemology, the survival of philosophy in an age of modern science is hard to imagine. ❹Metaphysics, philosophy’s traditional core—considered as the most general description of how the heavens and the earth are put together—had been rendered almost completely meaningless by the spectacular progress of physics. ❺Kant, however, by focusing philosophy on the problem of knowledge, managed to replace metaphysics with epistemology, and thus to transform the notion of philosophy as “queen of sciences” into the new notion of philosophy as a separate, foundational discipline. ❻Philosophy became “primary” no longer in the sense of “highest” but in the sense of “underlying”. ❼After Kant, philosophers were able to reinterpret seventeenth-and eighteenth-century thinkers as attempting to discover “How is our knowledge possible?” and to project this question back even on the ancients. 1. Which of the following best expresses the author’s main point?

A、Philosophy’s overriding interest in basic human questions is a legacy primarily of the work of Kant.

B、Philosophy was deeply involved in the seventeenth-century warfare between science and religion.

C、The set of problems of primary importance to philosophers has remained relatively constant since antiquity.

D、The status of philosophy as an independent intellectual pursuit is a relatively recent development.

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In the history of arts patronage(资助,赞助), entrepreneurs-turned-connoisseurs(艺术品鉴赏家,行家) are a young development. The world's greatest museums the Louvre, Hermitage, Prado began as lavish civilization-is-power statements by monarchs and emperors; private individuals did not emerge as significant museum patrons before the 19th century. Until a generation ago. those wanting to leave their mark in bricks usually did so in a room of their own in a state museum: the Duveen Galleries at Tate Britain, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Gallery at New York's Museum of Modern Art. But in the past 15 years, that has changed: worldwide, collectors seek immortality in glass and steel, through a museum of their own, designed by an architect of their choosing.

These are not latter-day Henry Tates or Pavel Tretyakovs, democratic visionaries who paid for buildings and donated core collections to kick-start evolving national, state-run institutions. Museum builders of the 1990s and 2000s, by contrast, are products of late capitalism, dedicated to more personal projects, with an individualistic flavor. They represent the legacy of Thatcher-Reagan words of choice, private philanthropy (慈善机构), me-generation celebrity.

Together, these and scores more bring diversity and flatten old geographical hierarchies. In Istanbul, collector Sakip Sabanci's museum, founded in 2002, is the first ever to show western modernism in Turkey. Thanks to Dominique de Menil, the greatest collection of paintings by Cy Twombly, who lives in Italy, is on permanent show in Houston, Texas, in a gallery designed in 1995 by Renzo Piano. In 1996 the late collector and dealer Heinz Berggmen launched his Museum Berggruen in Berlin, giving Germany its only Picasso collection.

Is all for the best in the best of all possible worlds? Certainly, more private museums mean more art on display for more people to see. Today's collectors are reluctant to bequeath (遗赠) to established museums, where space shortages mean works may go straight into storerooms and stay there. By contrast, a dedicated museum maintains the integrity of a collection, keeping together outstanding groups of works, assembled with personal flair, in buildings designed to enhance them. Renzo Piano's light, see-through 1997 construction for Ernst Beyeler's cherry-picked modernist paintings in Basel is the shining European example. For contemporary work, private collectors have particular advantages: free of state bureaucracy, they can respond quickly to the fast pace, and show work in ways that are too radical for traditional museums.

How did the Louvre, Hermitage, and Prado museums originate according to the passage?

A.Donations of the richest collectors.

B.Patronage of private individuals.

C.Collections of connoisseurs.

D.Encouragements and approval by rulers.



In which organizational document are an organization's rules and regulations usually stated?

A、employee handbook

B、federal code of ethics

C、mission and vision statement

D、human resource policy manual



Many Chinese students say that they have almost no time to play outdoors with theirfriends
. They have to spend a lot of timeon their homework and study every day. Howabout thestudents in the UK? According to a new report, only 21% ofchildren aged 8—12 have regularcontact(定期接触) with the natural world.

Some experts worry that the lack of contact with nature may bebad for children’s health,education and behavior. Others suggest different ways to help solve the problem. Monty Don, afamous British television gardener gives us a simple answer—he says gardening(园艺) shouldbe taught in every school in Britain.

According to Monty, gardening is the simplest way to get childrenoutside to enjoy freshair and sunlight. “Give students space big enough to let them grow their own plants. They mustcare fortheir plants, so they will run out to see them every day.”Monty thinks looking afterplants each daywill make them become more responsible(负 责 任 的 ). “The nature worldbecomes part of their real life, not just something they watch on television.”

As we know from the new report, ____ of British children aged 8 — 12 have not regularcontact withnature.





What is Monty Don’s job? He is a ____.A.reporter



D.television gardener

According to the passage Monty Don thinks ____ is the simplest way to get children outside.A.gardening

B.reading books

C.play games online

D.sit in the sun

In Monty Don’s opinion, he thinks gardening should ____.A.be learned by children themselves

B.be taught by parents

C.not be taught in school in any country

D.be taught inevery school in Britain

Monty thinks looking after plants is a good way to ____.A.plant the plants well

B.make children become more responsible

C.make their ownspace

D.make the school garden more beautiful



In the next century we'll be able to alter our DNA radically, encoding our visions and vanities while concocting new life-forms. When Dr. Frankenstein made his monster, he wrestled with the moral issue of whether he should allow it to reproduce, "Had I the right, for my oval benefit, to inflict the curse upon everlasting generations?" Will such questions require us to develop new moral philosophies?

Probably not. Instead, we'll reach again for a time-tested moral concept, one sometimes called the Golden Rule and which Kant, the millennium's most prudent moralist, conjured up into a categorical imperative: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you; treat each person as an individual rather than as a means to some end.

Under this moral precept we should recoil at human cloning, because it inevitably entails using humans as means to other humans' ends and valuing them as copies of others we loved or as collections of body parts, not as individuals in their own right. We should also draw a line, however fuzzy, that would permit using genetic engineering to cure diseases and disabilities but not to change the personal attributes that make someone an individual (IQ, physical appearance, gender and sexuality).

The biotech age will also give us more reason to guard our personal privacy. Aldous Huxley in Brave New World, got it wrong: rather than centralizing power in the hands of the state, DNA technology has empowered individuals and families. But the state will have an important role, making sure that no one, including insurance companies, can look at our genetic data without our permission or use it to discriminate against us.

Then we can get ready for the breakthroughs that could come at the end of the next century and the tech nology is comparable to mapping our genes: plotting the 10 billion or more neurons of our brain. With that information we might someday be able to create artificial intelligences that think and experience consciousness in ways that are indistinguishable from a human brain. Eventually we might be able to replicate our own minds in a "dry-ware" machine, so that we could live on without the "wet-ware" of a biological brain and body. The 20th century's revolution in infotechnology will thereby merge with the 21st century's revolution in biotechnology. But this is science fiction. Let's turn the page now and get back to real science.

Dr. Frankenstein's remarks are mentioned in the text ______

A.to give an episode of the DNA technological breakthroughs.

B.to highlight the importance of a means to some everlasting ends.

C.to show how he created a new form. of life a thousand years ago.

D.to introduce the topic of moral philosophies incurred in biotechnology.



Hawthorne has the view of "black vision", sin and intellectual's evil.


听力原文: Internet use appears to cause a decline in psychological well-being, according to research at Carnegie Mellon University.

Even people who spent just a few hour's a week on the Internet experienced more depression and loneliness than those who logged on less frequently, the two-year study showed. And it wasn't that people who were already feeling bad spent more time on the Internet, but that using the Net actually appeared to cause the bad feelings.

Researchers are puzzling over the results, which were completely contrary to their expectations. They expected that the Net would prove socially healthier than television, since the Net allows users to choose their information and to communicate with others.

The fact that Internet use reduces time available for family and friends may account for the drop in well-being, researchers hypothesized.

Faceless, bodiless "virtual" communication may be less psychologically satisfying than actual conversation, and the relationships formed through it may be shallower. Another possibility is that exposure to the wider world via the Net makes users less satisfied with their lives.

"But it's important to remember this is not about the technology; it's about how it is used," says psychologist Christine Riley of Intel, one of the study's sponsors. "It really points to the need for considering social factors in terms of how you design applications and services for technology."


A.People who feel bad spent more time on the Internet.

B.Using internet can cause depression and loneliness.

C.Internet use can improve psychological well-being.

D.Surfing Net for a few hours a week cannot cause bad feelings.



Sixty percent of television viewers chose him as their________host.







Where did the man see the woman yesterday?

A.On television.

B.At registration.

C.In class.

D.At work.



A.He often attended television programs to propose ideas.

B.He invited over 40 people to show their ideas in a period.

C.He would evaluate the ideas along with his top assistants.

D.He devoted a day to listening to ideas every three months.



A.He often attended television programs to propose ideas.

B.He invited over 40 people to show their ideas in a period.

C.He would evaluate the ideas along with his top assistants.

D.He devoted a day to listening to ideas every three months.

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